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Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
The manufacture of MSM is an "Exothermic" process -- that is, the process, itself, gives off heat. Any time a process gives off heat, there can be the chance for uncontrolled process, or explosion.
Chemical reaction where the energy content of the products is less than that of the reactants; heat is given out from the system.
Chemical reaction where the energy content of the products is more than that of the reactants; heat is taken in by the system.
|Endothermic and Exothermic
To demonstrate an endothermic process, Barium hydroxide (octahydrate) and Ammonium nitrate are mixed (in a 2:1 ratio) in a small beaker. This reaction displays the endothermic process and illustrated the interaction between changes in enthalpy and entropy is spontaneous chemical reactions. For a process to take place spontaneously at constant temperature and pressure, the change in free energy must be negative. An endothermic reaction may thus be spontaneous at constant pressure if the positive value of the heat absorbed is offset by a sufficient increase in entropy (randomness). In the reaction between barium hydroxide octahydrate and ammonium nitrate, the large increase in entropy is related to the increase in the number of particles present and their states (remember that two solids are combining to form a solid product and some liquid). As the reaction below shows, there are three molecules that combine to form 13 product molecules.
With this reaction, temperatures of -20o C can be achieved. Both of these demos can be done hands-on by volunteers from the audience.
Within a few minutes the temperature of the flask will drop to about -20o or -30o C. If a small amount of water is placed on a small piece of cardboard, the flask will freeze the water and the cardboard will stick to the flask after a minute or two of contact. Alternatively, this may be son with a small wooden block. The temperature of the flask may be measured directly if a thermometer is available.
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